Acid Peptic Disease
Acid peptic disease – commonly called APD – includes a number of conditions. All these conditions are the result of damage from acid and peptic activity in gastric secretions. APD occurs when the acid starts irritating the inner cells (mucosal layer) of the stomach. Acid peptic diseases mostly affect the oesophagus, stomach, and duodenum.
Acid peptic diseases are caused by the excessive presence of acid and pepsin. The two main types of acid peptic diseases are gastric and duodenal ulcer. However, they can also occur at the GJ Stoma, lower end of oesophagus, and Meckel’s diverticulum. According to duration and complexity of symptoms they can be acute or chronic.
The main causes are:
Citrus or acidic fruits
Chocolate, caffeine, and alcohol
Greasy, fatty, spicy, and fried foods
Garlic, onions, and mint flavourings
Drugs, such as aspirin and types of steroids
A digestive function disorder, acid peptic disease is characterised by dyspepsia (discomfort, heartburn, or nausea). However, the classic symptom of peptic ulcer disease, is defined as pain centered in the upper abdomen or discomfort characterised by fullness, bloating, distention, or nausea. Factors contributing to acid peptic disorder Acid peptic disorder results when the balance between the aggressive and defensive factors in the gastro duodenal mucosa is disrupted. This balance could be disrupted by factors such as H pylori infection, NSAID (Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug), and acid secretory abnormalities. A defect in bicarbonate production and acid neutralisation in the duodenal bulb is also a potent cause.